Team:Evry/FrenchFrog

From 2012.igem.org

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<h3>Plasmid injected: pCS2+ with CMV promoter and GFP-aid reporter</h3><br/>
<h3>Plasmid injected: pCS2+ with CMV promoter and GFP-aid reporter</h3><br/>
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<p>We injected 2.3 nl of plasmids at 100ng.µl-1 - embryos were stored at 21°C during all the experiment. pCS2+ GFP-aid: contains the constitutive and ubiquitous promoter CMV and the aid sequenced of the aid system fusionned to GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein)(Nishimura et al., 2009), this Biobrick created by our team is <a href="http://partsregistry.org/wiki/index.php?title=Part:BBa_K812010">BBa_K812010</a>, and it was integrated into our Eucaryotic plasmid <a href="http://partsregistry.org/wiki/index.php?title=Part:BBa_K812000">BBa_K812000</a>.We injected about 3.78E+7 plasmids.</p><br/>
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<p>pCS2+ GFP-aid: this plasmid contains the constitutive and ubiquitous promoter CMV and the aid sequenced of the aid system fusionned to GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein)(Nishimura et al., 2009), this Biobrick created by our team is <a href="http://partsregistry.org/wiki/index.php?title=Part:BBa_K812010">BBa_K812010</a>, and it was integrated into our Eucaryotic plasmid <a href="http://partsregistry.org/wiki/index.php?title=Part:BBa_K812000">BBa_K812000</a>.We injected about 3.78E+7 plasmids.</p><br/>
<img src="http://2012.igem.org/wiki/images/c/cc/Tadpole_de_la_mort.png" alt="Image unavailable" width="950px" />   
<img src="http://2012.igem.org/wiki/images/c/cc/Tadpole_de_la_mort.png" alt="Image unavailable" width="950px" />   
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GFP-aid expression from the embryo at <a href="http://2012.igem.org/Team:Evry/Stages">stage</a> 20 (one day after injection )to a tadpole at <a href="http://2012.igem.org/Team:Evry/Stages">stage</a> ~46 (four days after injection). For this tadpole the expression is localized in the skin.
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<h4><b>The characterization of all reporter and promoters is <u><a href="http://2012.igem.org/Team:Evry/Tadpole_injection1">here</a></u>.</b></h4><br>
<h4><b>The characterization of all reporter and promoters is <u><a href="http://2012.igem.org/Team:Evry/Tadpole_injection1">here</a></u>.</b></h4><br>

Revision as of 11:21, 26 September 2012

Xenopus tropicalis: A new multicellular chassis

Establishment of a new chassis


So far, synthetic biology has mostly focused on bacteria, since they are simple to engineer. iGEM teams and laboratories have worked on unicellular organisms in order to understand the underlying biology and have developed an impressive database of molecular parts. Some work has also been done on engineering mammalian cells and a few iGEM teams have followed this trend. Synthetic biologists are now imagining the rational design of multicellular organisms with numerous applications ranging from gene therapy or drug production to environmental monitoring. This year, our team would like to be part of that challenge.

The arrival of Xenopus as a chassis in synthetic biology requires the creation of new standards and protocols that the community will be able to build on. We provided the registry with such tools that allow rapid construction and characterization of devices in vivo, and include debugging tools. We think they will be very useful for later iGEM teams and synthetic biologists who wish to work with Xenopus for building multicellular systems.

This year, the Evry iGEM team is going to be the one of the first iGEM team to work on a vertebrate. Our work is focused both on developing a system for intercellular and intertissue communication, and creating the tools for the iGEM community to easily express genes in specific tissues. We believe the tadpole is a chassis of choice for iGEM on multicellular organisms, as experiments can be conducted in one week using microinjection methods. We hope to demonstrate the feasibility of engineering Xenopus in one summer for an iGEM project, and to create a great tool for multicellular synthetic biology: An orthogonal hormonal system.


The simple molecular strategy to build eukaryotic plasmid ready to use:




Image unavailable



Example of GFP expression in Xenopus


The injection tutorial explains very simply with diagram how we did injection and how take care about your embryos and tadpole. The experiment carries on 5 days, from the unfertilized egg to a swimming tadpole at stage 48-50. The GFP (or other fluorescent protein) is expressed few hours after the fertilization to the end of the week (see below).

Plasmid injected: pCS2+ with CMV promoter and GFP-aid reporter


pCS2+ GFP-aid: this plasmid contains the constitutive and ubiquitous promoter CMV and the aid sequenced of the aid system fusionned to GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein)(Nishimura et al., 2009), this Biobrick created by our team is BBa_K812010, and it was integrated into our Eucaryotic plasmid BBa_K812000.We injected about 3.78E+7 plasmids.


Image unavailable GFP-aid expression from the embryo at stage 20 (one day after injection )to a tadpole at stage ~46 (four days after injection). For this tadpole the expression is localized in the skin.

The characterization of all reporter and promoters is here.


Conclusion


We showed that our constructions express our reporters with the CMV promoter. These parts are considered characterized. Nevertheless we expected a more uniform expression of the reporters with the CMV promoter. Spectral variants of fluorescent proteins could be expressed in different tissues. Within one tadpole the fluorescent proteins were observed in one to four different tissues, and tissues were different between tadpoles.

Explanation: The plasmid DNA does not diffuse in the egg and stay in the same area around the injection site. This means that depending on the injection site, the plasmid will be inherited by a given set of cells within the tadpole. This question was raised in our model. Another reason could be that the metabolism of each differentiated cell is different and changes during the tadpole's development.

Moreover the expression of reporters decreases during time, because plasmid DNA is subjected to a catabolic activity during development but also plasmid DNA gets diluted as cells proliferate and the quantity of plasmid DNA decreases for each cell.


References:

  1. Inducible control of tissue-specific transgene expression in Xenopus tropicalis transgenic lines., Chae J., Zimmerman L.B., Grainger R.M., Mechanisms of development 117:1-2, 2002
  2. Xenopus: a prince among models for pronephric kidney development., Jones E., JASN 16:2, 2005