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Backbone, more commonly known as a vector, is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to transfer foreign genetic material into another cell.

Binding Specificity

The chance that a protein or molecule binds to a target upon making contact.


In computer science the term bit is used as a representation of a variable that is either on or of, using 0's and 1's.

Constitutive Promoters

A promoter that is not regulated and allows for constant transcription of its associated gene.

Daughter Cell

The result of the replication and division of a parent cell.


Developed or originated from within the organism.


The study of heritable changes in gene expression by other means than the underlying DNA.

Fluorescent Protein

Proteins that emit fluorescence. Such proteins are often used to track genes and processes inside a cell.

Fusion Protein

A protein created trough joining two or more genes originally coding for seperate proteins.


An enzyme that transfers a methyl group from a donor to an acceptor. Methylation is often used to regulate the expression of genes, as DNA that is inhibited by a methyl group is inaccessible to outside factors.


Microorganisms that cause a disease in a host.


A series of actions among molecules in a cell that leads to a certain product or a change in a cell.


A DNA molecule that is seperate from the chromosomal DNA and is able to replicate independently.


A DNA region that triggers the transcription of a particular gene. Promoters can be on or off, depending on the presence of transcription factors.

Protein Degradation

The degradation of proteins, which happens at a constant factor.

Recognition site

The DNA sequence that is recognized by any specific DNA-binding protein motif.

Restriction Site

Restriction sites are recognition sites that are recognized by restriction enzymes. Upon binding restriction enzymes cut between two nucleotides in the restriction site, or between two nucleotides nearby.


A DNA sequence at the end of a gene that stops transcription.

Zinc Finger

A small structural protein motif that is able to recognize and bind to a specific DNA sequence.